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6的新功能总结

日期:2019-12-27编辑作者:Web网络

A.M. Kuchling 写道:Python 2.6的注重指标是希图搬迁到Python 3.0,对Python重新设计。所以只要大概,Python 2.6错落了3.0版本的新属性和语法,不需求删除旧的性质或语法就可以相配如今的代码。要是不能那样做,Python 2.6在future_builtins模块中增加宽容功用,通过-3 switch切换到提醒那么些将不会在3.0后续扶助的内容。规范库中加多了有些新的包,比方multiprocessing 和 jsonlib 模块,不过在好几方面并未有专门多和Python 3.0毫不相关的效应……

异步帮忙

 adds support for using async for in list, set, dict comprehensions and generator expressions:
  (扩展了在列表,集结,字母推导和生成器表明式中的使用帮忙:async for)

result = [i async for i in aiter() if i % 2]

  Additionally, await expressions are supported in all kinds of comprehensions:
  (此外,await表达式协助种种精晓:)

result = [await fun() for fun in funcs if await condition()]

TheGlossary词汇表is also worth going through.

二月尾旬,Python 2.6beta3 和 3.0beta3 发布。现在A.M. Kuchling 写的《What’s New in Python 2.6》(Python 2.6的新职能卡塔尔国计算小说已经上线,最后版本发布时间是7月1日,可是以往大器晚成度有不菲章节能够阅读了。

Windows improvements

  • PEP 528 and PEP 529, Windows filesystem and console encoding changed to UTF-8.
    (Windows文件系统和调整台编码更正为UTF-8)
  • The py.exe launcher, when used interactively, no longer prefers Python 2 over Python 3 when the user doesn’t specify a version (via command line arguments or a config file). Handling of shebang lines remains unchanged - “python” refers to Python 2 in that case.
  • (py.exe当客户未有一点点名版本(通过命令行参数或计划文件)时,运维器在交互作用式使用时不再动用Python 2,而是选用Python 3。shebang行的管理保持不变 - “python”在这里种情景下是指Python 2。)
  • python.exe and pythonw.exe have been marked as long-path aware, which means that the 260 character path limit may no longer apply. See removing the MAX_PATH limitation for details.
    (python.exe和pythonw.exe已被标志为长光程知道,那代表2伍十五个字符的- 路径约束大概不再适用。有关详细音信,请参阅删除MAX_PATH限制。)
  • A ._pth file can be added to force isolated mode and fully specify all search paths to avoid registry and environment lookup. See the documentation for more information.
    (一个._pth文件能够被增添到强迫隔开情势和完全钦定全体的探究路径,以幸免注册表和意况查找。有关详细消息,请参阅 文书档案。)
  • A python36.zip file now works as a landmark to infer PYTHONHOME. See the documentation for more information.
    (四个python36.zip文件今后作为一个里程碑推断PYTHONHOME。有关详细新闻,请参阅文书档案。)

The Python interpreter is easily extended with new functions and data types implemented in C or C++ (or other languages callable from C卡塔尔国. Python is also suitable as an extension language for customizable applications.使用 C 或 C++(别的能够经过 C 调用的语言)能够相当轻便的为 Python 解释器扩大新函数和数据类型。Python 还是能够被充任定制应用程序的一门扩大语言。

章节信息:

变量注释的语法

Syntax for variable annotations

introduced the standard for type annotations of function parameters, a.k.a. type hints. This PEP adds syntax to Python for annotating the types of variables including class variables and instance variables:
(引进了功用参数类型注释的科班,也可以称作类型提醒。这几个PEP增添了Python的语法来解说变量的种类,包括类变量和实例变量:卡塔尔(英语:State of Qatar)

primes: List[int] = []

captain: str  # Note: no initial value!

class Starship:
    stats: Dict[str, int] = {}

  Just as for function annotations, the Python interpreter does not attach any particular meaning to variable annotations and only stores them in the annotations attribute of a class or module.

   In contrast to variable declarations in statically typed languages, the goal of annotation syntax is to provide an easy way to specify structured type metadata for third party tools and libraries via the abstract syntax tree and the annotations attribute.

(  就像是函数注释同样,Python解释器对变量注释未有增大别的特定的意思,只将它们存款和储蓄在__annotations__类或模块的 属性中。

  与静态类型语言中的变量注明反倒,注释语法的目标是提供少年老成种通过架空语法树和__annotations__天性为第三方工具和库钦点布局化类型元数据的轻便方法。卡塔尔国

本学科不会尝试完全覆盖python的每一个表征甚至是部分平时利用的特色。相反的,它介绍了成都百货上千python最值得注意的风味,並且会让你对python语言的风骨和特点有三个神奇的体味。读完之后,你能够阅读和书写python模块和顺序,并为日后通过python标准库进一层学习更加多的python模块库做好希图。

那篇小说并非要提供一整个新职能表达,而是提供生机勃勃种便利的浏览和清楚的秘籍。推荐阅读:

将Windows调节台编码校正为UTF-8

  Windows上的暗中同意调控台现在将经受全体Unicode字符,并将准确读取的str对象提须要Python代码。sys.stdin, sys.stdout并且sys.stderr未来默以为UTF-8编码。

  此修改仅适用于接受人机联作式调整台时,并不是重定向文件或管道时。要上涨原先的人机联作式调整台使用的行为,请设置PYTHONLEGACYWINDOWSSTDIO。

This tutorial does not attempt to be comprehensive综合的and cover every single feature, or even every commonly used feature. Instead, it introduces many of Python’s most noteworthy features, and will give you a good idea of the language’s flavor and style. After reading it, you will be able to read and write Python modules and programs, and you will be ready to learn more about the various Python library modules described inThe Python Standard Library.

What’s New in Python 2.6Python 3.0Changes to the Development ProcessNew Issue Tracker: RoundupNew Documentation Format: reStructuredText Using SphinxPEP 343: The ‘with’ statementWriting Context ManagersThe contextlib modulePEP 366: Explicit Relative Imports From a Main ModulePEP 370: Per-user site-packages DirectoryPEP 371: The multiprocessing PackagePEP 3101: Advanced String FormattingPEP 3105: print As a FunctionPEP 3110: Exception-Handling ChangesPEP 3112: Byte LiteralsPEP 3116: New I/O LibraryPEP 3118: Revised Buffer ProtocolPEP 3119: Abstract Base ClassesPEP 3127: Integer Literal Support and SyntaxPEP 3129: Class DecoratorsPEP 3141: A Type Hierarchy for NumbersThe fractions ModuleOther Language ChangesOptimizationsInterpreter ChangesNew, Improved, and Deprecated ModulesThe ast moduleThe future_builtins moduleThe json module: JavaScript Object NotationThe plistlib module: A Property-List Parserctypes EnhancementsImproved SSL SupportBuild and C API ChangesPort-Specific Changes: WindowsPort-Specific Changes: MacOS XPort-Specific Changes: IRIXPorting to Python 2.6Acknowledgements

对该地时间歧义的拍卖

Local Time Disambiguation

In most world locations, there have been and will be times when local clocks are moved back. In those times, intervals are introduced in which local clocks show the same time twice in the same day. In these situations, the information displayed on a local clock (or stored in a Python datetime instance) is insufficient to identify a particular moment in time.
(在相当多世界外省,都有过,或在在现在都有本地的原子钟回调的时候。在此些时刻里,在同一时候内,本地时钟会同有的时候候出示七个时间。在此些情形下,呈现在地点石英钟(或存储在Python日期时间实例中)的音信不足以识别特准时刻。)

PEP 495 adds the new fold attribute to instances of datetime.datetime and datetime.time classes to differentiate between two moments in time for which local times are the same:
(将新的 fold属性加多到实例 datetime.datetime和datetime.time类中,以分别多个时间点,当中当地时间同大器晚成:)

u0 = datetime(2016, 11, 6, 4, tzinfo=timezone.utc) for i in range(4): ... u = u0 + i*HOUR ... t = u.astimezone(Eastern) ... print(u.time(), 'UTC =', t.time(), t.tzname(), t.fold) ... 04:00:00 UTC = 00:00:00 EDT 0 05:00:00 UTC = 01:00:00 EDT 0 06:00:00 UTC = 01:00:00 EST 1 07:00:00 UTC = 02:00:00 EST 0

Python is an easy to learn, powerful programming编制程序language. It has efficient high-level data structures数据结构and a simple but effective approach路子to object-oriented面向对象programming. Python’s elegant syntax语法and dynamic typing动态的类型, together with its interpreted解释nature, make it an ideal理想的language for scripting and rapid application development in many areas on most platforms.python 高雅的语法、动态的数据类型和它的本来的表明使它成为卓越的本子编辑撰写和高速支付应用语言。

异步发生器

  引进了对该地合作程序的支撑和async/await 或Python 3.5语法。Python 3.5达成的三个显着的界定是不大概选用await和yield在同叁个效应体中。在Python 3.6中,这一个范围被破除了,能够定义异步产生器:

async def ticker(delay, to):
    """Yield numbers from 0 to *to* every *delay* seconds."""
    for i in range(to):
        yield i
        await asyncio.sleep(delay)

新语法允许更加快更简洁的代码。

For a description of standard objects and modules, seeThe Python Standard Library.The Python Language Reference仿效、参照他事他说加以考察书目,介绍信gives a more formal正式的definition定义,阐述of the language.假若须求了然标准对象和模块,可以透过查阅python标准库、python语言参谋文书档案获取越发专门的学业的印证。To write extensions in C or C++, readExtending andEmbedding 集成the Python InterpreterandPython/C API ReferenceManual手册. There are also several books covering Python in depth.要是想要通过C可能C++编写扩大,请阅读python解释器增添和集成章节以致python/C API参考手册。

本文解释了Python 3.6中的新效能,与3.5相对来说。Python 3.6于二零一六年四月二十三日发表。有关总体的详细音信,请参阅更新日志。

The Python Tutorialpython教程

New Features(新功能)

图片 1

将Windows文件系统一编写码修改为UTF-8

  代表文件系统路径最棒用str(Unicode)并非字节来推行。不过,有个别景况下选择字节是十足和不易的。

  在Python 3.6事情发生早先,在Windows上利用字节路线时恐怕会促成数据错失。通过这种变动,现在在Windows上支撑接受字节来代表路线,前提是那几个字节使用再次来到的编码(sys.getfilesystemencoding(卡塔尔国以往私下认可为编码)实行编码 'utf-8'。

  不使用str表示路线的应用程序应该接受os.fsencode(卡塔尔(قطر‎并os.fsdecode(卡塔尔(英语:State of Qatar)确定保证其字节被精确编码。要还原到早前的表现,请设置 PYTHONLEGACYWINDOWSFSENCODING或打电话 sys._enablelegacywindowsfsencoding()。

The Python Tutorialpython教程

Summary – Release highlights(摘要)

新特性

  • PEP 498, formatted string literals.
    (格式化的字符串文字。)
  • PEP 515, underscores in numeric literals.
    (以数字文字表示。)
  • PEP 526, syntax for variable annotations.
    (变量注释的语法。)
  • PEP 525, asynchronous generators.
    (异步发生器。)
  • PEP 530: asynchronous comprehensions.
    (异步驾驭。)

This tutorial introduces the reader informally to the basic concepts and features of the Python language and system. 本学科非正式的向读者介绍了python 语言及其类其余基本概念和特色。It helps to have a Python interpreter handy for hands-on experience, but all examples are self-contained, so the tutorial can be read off-line as well.它推动依靠Python解释器轻便得到推行经验,但装有的是亲自过问都以独立的,所以你也得以离线阅读。

Formatted string literals(string的格式化)

Formatted string literals are prefixed with 'f' and are similar to the format strings accepted by str.format(). They contain replacement fields surrounded by curly braces. The replacement fields are expressions, which are evaluated at run time, and then formatted using the format() protocol:
(字符串的格式化近似于字符串f的str.format(卡塔尔格式化。它们含有被大括号包围的轮番字段。替换字段是在运营时怎么样格式的表明式,然后利用format(卡塔尔合同进行格式化 )

name = "Fred" f"He said his name is {name}." 'He said his name is Fred.' width = 10 precision = 4 value = decimal.Decimal("12.34567") f"result: {value:{width}.{precision}}" # nested fields 'result: 12.35'

The Python interpreter解释器(python.exe)and the extensive大量的standard library arefreely available免费获得in source or binary form以源代码恐怕二进制方式for all major platforms from the Python Web site,https://www.python.org/,在具备主流平台,python解释器和大批量的规范库都得以从python官方网址以源代码只怕二进制情势免费获得和放肆发布and may be freely distributed. The same site also contains distributions of and pointers to many free third party Python modules, programs and tools, and additional documentation.python官方网站也提供了不菲无偿的第三方组织公布的Python模块、程序、工具以至任何的文书档案。

安然改过

  • The new secrets module has been added to simplify the generation of cryptographically strong pseudo-random numbers suitable for managing secrets such as account authentication, tokens, and similar.
  • On Linux, os.urandom() now blocks until the system urandom entropy pool is initialized to increase the security. See the PEP 524 for the rationale.
  • The hashlib and ssl modules now support OpenSSL 1.1.0.
  • The default settings and feature set of the ssl module have been improved.
  • The hashlib module received support for the BLAKE2, SHA-3 and SHAKE hash algorithms and the scrypt() key derivation function.
    (该hashlib模块援助BLAKE2,SHA-3和SHAKE哈希算法以致scrypt(卡塔尔密钥导出效果。)

词汇表也是值得阅读的。

定制类创设的简化

  It is now possible to customize subclass creation without using a metaclass. The new init_subclass classmethod will be called on the base class whenever a new subclass is created:

  (以往能够定制子类制造而不接受元类。新__init_subclass__类措施就要基类每当创制叁个新的子类被可以称作:)

class PluginBase:
    subclasses = []

    def __init_subclass__(cls, **kwargs):
        super().__init_subclass__(**kwargs)
        cls.subclasses.append(cls)

class Plugin1(PluginBase):
    pass

class Plugin2(PluginBase):
    pass

  In order to allow zero-argument super() calls to work correctly from init_subclass() implementations, custom metaclasses must ensure that the new classcell namespace entry is propagated to type.new (as described in Creating the class object).
  (为了允许零参数super(卡塔尔(英语:State of Qatar)调用从__init_subclass__(卡塔尔国落成中符合规律专门的学问,自定义元类必需保证新的__classcell__命名空间条约被传播到 type.new(如创立类对象中所述)。)

典型库的非常重要改良:

Significant improvements in the standard library

  • The asyncio module has received new features, significant usability and performance improvements, and a fair amount of bug fixes. Starting with Python 3.6 the asyncio module is no longer provisional and its API is considered stable.
    (该asyncio模块已经得到了新作用,显着的可用性和质量改过,甚至大批量的失实修复。从Python 3.6从头,该asyncio模块不再是近些日子的,它的API被以为是平静的。)
  • A new file system path protocol has been implemented to support path-like objects. All standard library functions operating on paths have been updated to work with the new protocol.
  • (已经贯彻了风度翩翩种新的文件系统路线合同来扶持相像路线的指标。全体在路径上运维的正规库函数都已经更新,以合营新说道)
  • The datetime module has gained support for Local Time Disambiguation.
    (该datetime模块拿到了本地时间消歧的支撑 。)
    The typing module received a number of improvements.
    (typing模块选择了某些 修改。)
  • The tracemalloc module has been significantly reworked and is now used to provide better output for ResourceWarning as well as provide better diagnostics for memory allocation errors. See the PYTHONMALLOC section for more information.
    (该tracemalloc模块已经大大改动,现在用来提供更加好的输出ResourceWarning以至为内部存款和储蓄器分配错误提供越来越好的确诊。有关详细新闻,请参阅PYTHONMALLOC部分。)

陈诉符公约加强

  extends the descriptor protocol to include the new optional set_name() method. Whenever a new class is defined, the new method will be called on all descriptors included in the definition, providing them with a reference to the class being defined and the name given to the descriptor within the class namespace. In other words, instances of descriptors can now know the attribute name of the descriptor in the owner class:

  (扩充描述符合同以囊括新的可选 set_name(卡塔尔国方法。每当定义两个新类时,将调用定义中隐含的保有描述符的新措施,为它们提供对定义的类的援引,甚至类名称空间中给描述符的称谓。换句话说,描述符的实例未来得以知晓所有者类中的描述符的质量名称:)

class IntField:
    def __get__(self, instance, owner):
        return instance.__dict__[self.name]

    def __set__(self, instance, value):
        if not isinstance(value, int):
            raise ValueError(f'expecting integer in {self.name}')
        instance.__dict__[self.name] = value

    # this is the new initializer:
    def __set_name__(self, owner, name):
        self.name = name

class Model:
    int_field = IntField()

数字的巩固

Underscores in Numeric Literals

   adds the ability to use underscores in numeric literals for improved readability. For example:
(增添了在数字文字中使用下划线的力量,以升高可读性。举例)

>>> 1_000_000_000_000_000
1000000000000000
>>> 0x_FF_FF_FF_FF
4294967295

Single underscores are allowed between digits and after any base specifier. Leading, trailing, or multiple underscores in a row are not allowed.

The string formatting language also now has support for the '_' option to signal the use of an underscore for a thousands separator for floating point presentation types and for integer presentation type 'd'. For integer presentation types 'b', 'o', 'x', and 'X', underscores will be inserted every 4 digits:

(  允许在数字之间和别的基本申明符之后采取单个下划线。不准风流浪漫行中的前导,尾随或五个下划线。

  该字符串格式化语言今后也保有了支持'_'非确定性信号为千位分隔符使用下划线的浮点显示类型和整数呈现类型选拔'd'。对于整数展现类型'b', 'o','x',和'X',下划线将被插入每4个位数:)

'{:_}'.format(1000000) '1_000_000' '{:_x}'.format(0xFFFFFFFF) 'ffff_ffff'

CPython达成改善

CPython implementation improvements:

  • The dict(字典,python的主旨项目) type has been reimplemented to use a more compact representation based on a proposal by 雷MondHettinger and similar to the PyPy dict implementation(PyPy dict落成). This resulted in dictionaries using 十分四 to 五分之三 less memory when compared to Python 3.5.
    (该字典类型已再度完成接收更严密的代表 基于由雷Mond·赫廷格的提议和周围PyPy字典完毕。与Python 3.5相比,那使得字典的内存收缩了20%到25%。)
  • Customization of class creation has been simplified with the new protocol.
    (通过新说道简化了类创立的定制 。)
  • The class attribute definition order is now preserved.
    (类属性定义顺序 现在被封存。)
  • The order of elements in kwargs now corresponds to the order in which keyword arguments were passed to the function.
    kwargs中的成分顺序现在对应于传递给函数的严重性字参数的各样。)
    DTrace and SystemTap probing support has been added.
    (增多了DTrace和SystemTap探测援助。)
  • The new PYTHONMALLOC environment variable can now be used to debug the interpreter memory allocation and access errors.
    (将来得以应用新的PYTHONMALLOC情状变量来调治解释器内部存储器分配和访谈错误。)

文件系统路线合同的加多

Adding a file system path protocol

File system paths have historically been represented as str or bytes objects. This has led to people who write code which operate on file system paths to assume that such objects are only one of those two types (an int representing a file descriptor does not count as that is not a file path). Unfortunately that assumption prevents alternative object representations of file system paths like pathlib from working with pre-existing code, including Python’s standard library.

(文件系统路线历来被代表为str 或bytes对象。那招致编写在文件系统路线上操作的代码的大伙儿感到这么的对象只是这两连串型之风流倜傥(int表示二个文本陈述符不被视为不是文本路线)。不幸的是,这种尽管阻止了文件系统路线的替代对象表示,例如pathlib使用预先存在的代码,包罗Python的标准库。)

To fix this situation, a new interface represented by os.PathLike has been defined. By implementing the fspath() method, an object signals that it represents a path. An object can then provide a low-level representation of a file system path as a str or bytes object. This means an object is considered path-like if it implements os.PathLike or is a str or bytes object which represents a file system path. Code can use os.fspath(), os.fsdecode(), or os.fsencode() to explicitly get a str and/or bytes representation of a path-like object.
(为了缓和这种景观,os.PathLike已经定义了叁个新的分界面 。通过落实该 fspath(卡塔尔(قطر‎方法,一个对象表示它象征路线。然后,对象能够提供作为str或 bytes对象的文件系统路径的低端表示。那表示多个指标被以为是 路线,借使它完毕os.PathLike或是三个str或bytes表示文件系统路线的目的。代码可以动用os.fspath(卡塔尔, os.fsdecode(卡塔尔(英语:State of Qatar)或os.fsencode(卡塔尔显式地获取一个str和/或bytes八个看似路线的指标的意味。)

The built-in open() function has been updated to accept os.PathLike objects, as have all relevant functions in the os and os.path modules, and most other functions and classes in the standard library. The os.DirEntry class and relevant classes in pathlib have also been updated to implement os.PathLike.

(内置open(卡塔尔(英语:State of Qatar)函数已被更新为接收os.PathLike对象,os甚至os.path模块中的全数有关功用以致规范库中的大多数任何职能和类。本os.DirEntry类和相关类pathlib也拓宽了翻新来促成os.PathLike。)

The hope is that updating the fundamental functions for operating on file system paths will lead to third-party code to implicitly support all path-like objects without any code changes, or at least very minimal ones (e.g. calling os.fspath() at the beginning of code before operating on a path-like object).

  (希望更新文件系统路线上运维的基本作用将招致第三方代码隐含地扶植具有相像路线的对象,而无需任何代码改正,或最少相当小的os.fspath(卡塔尔(قطر‎代码(举例在操作起来时调用 代码)在路线样的靶子上)。)

以下是一些示范,表明什么pathlib.Path使用预先存在的代码更易于和晶莹剔透地行使新界面:

>>> import pathlib
>>> with open(pathlib.Path("README")) as f:
...     contents = f.read()
...
>>> import os.path
>>> os.path.splitext(pathlib.Path("some_file.txt"))
('some_file', '.txt')
>>> os.path.join("/a/b", pathlib.Path("c"))
'/a/b/c'
>>> import os
>>> os.fspath(pathlib.Path("some_file.txt"))
'some_file.txt'

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